Radiographic examinations are considered as the basic method of non-destructive testing with the highest reliability of tests. Together with the ultrasonic method they are included in volumetric tests. Radiography is still widely used despite significant research costs. The fields of its application are practically all processes of manufacturing and operation of industrial devices. The basic industrial sectors of production where the radiographic method is most often used are: welding, founding and plastic processing in such industries as shipbuilding, chemical, petrochemical, automotive, aerospace and space.
Radiography makes it possible to obtain an image of an object being scanned on a radiographic or digital film. Objects undergoing screening can be products made of various materials such as steel, ceramics, wood, rubber, plastics, concrete. Depending on the sources of gamma or X-ray radiation used, we can x-ray objects with thicknesses from 0 to a few hundred millimeters of steel or concrete. The sensitivity of this method varies within a few percent of the thickness of the x-ray layer and allows to detect such internal defects as cracks, porosities, shrinkage cavities or inclusions of foreign materials.
The only basic obstacle to the radiographic method is its limitation as a result of ionizing radiation and the requirements of protecting personnel against this radiation. In addition to the considerable labor-intensity of this method, this is a basic factor indirectly affecting the increase in the cost of radiographic examinations.